What Are The 4 Types Of Database Management Systems?

database management

What Are The 4 Types Of Database Management Systems?

A database management system is a collection of programs used to manage data, and simultaneously it helps different types of users create, manage, update, retrieve and store information.

Types of Database Management Systems

The types of DBMS based on the data model are as follows −

1. Relational database.
2. Object-oriented database.
3. Hierarchical database.
4. Network database.

1. Relational Database

A relational database is a kind of database that stores and gives access to data points related to each other. It is based on the relational model and a precise data representation in tables. Each row in the table is documented with a particular ID called the key in a relational database. 

The columns of the table have attributes of the data, and each record usually has a value for each attribute, making it easy to set the relationships among data points.

Every table in a database has a mandatory field that identifies each record. This type of system is the most widely used database management system.

A relational database management system is available for personal computers, large mainframe systems, and workstations.

Benefits of a relational database management system

Organizations of all kinds and sizes use the robust relational model for different information needs. Relational databases are used to track inventories, manage massive amounts of mission-critical customer information, and process eCommerce transactions.

A relational database can be used for any information needed in which data points connect and must be managed securely, rules-based, and uniformly. Relational databases have been around since the 1970s. Today, the benefits of the relational model continue to make it the most widely accepted model for databases.

2. Object-Oriented Database(OOD)

Object-oriented databases(OOD) emerged to meet the need to couple object-oriented programming languages with a database. 

Object-oriented databases have been around since the late 1970s. In recent years, they have seen a rather low adoption with the growth of functional programming languages and relational databases. However, the growing user community is awakening to its capacity to deliver fast queries with simpler code.

OOD is a combination of relational database concepts and object-oriented principles. It needs less code and is effortless to maintain.

Object-Oriented Databases Cases

OODs are most generally used with object-oriented programming languages like Kotlin, C#, Node JS, Java, and Swift. Industries that use OODs usually are built on an object-oriented language and want to increase productivity while working with complex data structures.

3. Hierarchical Database

As the name implies, the hierarchical database model is most suitable for use cases. The primary focus of information assemblage is based on a definite hierarchy, such as several respective employees reporting to a single department at a firm.

The tree-like organization defines the schema for hierarchical databases. There is generally a root “parent” directory of data stored as records links to other subdirectory branches. Each subdirectory branch may link to various other subdirectory branches.

The hierarchical database structure dictates that, while a parent record can have many child records, each can only have one parent record. Data within records are held in the form of fields, and each field can only hold one value. Regaining hierarchical data from a hierarchical database architecture needs traversing the entire tree.

Example of a hierarchical model

A record in the hierarchical database model coordinates to a row in the relational database model, and any entity type coordinates to a table.

The hierarchical database model demands that each child record has only one parent, but each parent record can have one or more child records. The whole tree should be traversed starting from the root node to retrieve data from a hierarchical database. The hierarchical model is recognized as the first database model created in the 1960s by IBM.

The Hierarchical Data Model is a method of organizing a database with numerous one too many relationships. The structure is based on the regulation that one parent can have many children, but children are permitted only one parent. This structure lets information be repeated through the parent-child relations developed by IBM and was executed mainly in their Information Management System.

4. Network database

A network database is a model wherein numerous member records or files can be connected to multiple owner files and vice versa. The model can be regarded as an upside-down tree where each member’s information is the branch linked to the owner, which is the bottom of the tree. Relationships are in a net-like form where each element can point to multiple data elements and be pointed to by multiple data elements.

The network database model permits each record to have multiple parent and multiple child records, which, when pictured, form a web-like structure of networked records. In contrast, a hierarchical model data member can only have a single parent record but can have many child records.

This multiple-lit method applies in two ways: the schema and the database can be seen as a generalized graph of record types connected by relationship types. The primary advantage of a network database is that it allows for a more natural modeling of relationships between records or entities instead of the hierarchical model. Nevertheless, the relational database model has started to win over both the network and the hierarchical models. Its added flexibility and productivity have become more evident as hardware technology has become faster.

Advantages of Database Management Systems

1. DBMS offers various techniques to store & retrieve data
2. Uniform administration procedures for data
3. Application programmers are never exposed to details of data representation and storage.
4. A DBMS uses different powerful functions to store and retrieve data efficiently.
5. A DBMS schedules concurrent access to the data so that only one user can access the same data at a time.
6. The DBMS indicates integrity constraints to get a high level of protection against prohibited access to data.

When not to use a DBMS system?

Although, the DBMS system is helpful. It is still not recommended when you do not have the budget or the expertise to operate a DBMS. Excel, CSV, or Flat Files could do just fine in such cases.